As he nears death, Jesus prays in the garden to “Abba” (in Mk. 14:36). This Aramaic word was originally used by infants to address their daddy; but by Jesus’ time it was also used by adults as an endearing word to address their dad. When Jesus addresses his dear Dad, he does so as an obedient son–“not what I want, but what you want.”
The Old Testament never uses Abba; instead the more formal “Abi” (my Father) is found. When used for God, Abi is found in only 15 passages and refers to God as the Father of Israel (where often Israel is depicted as a disobedient son, for example in Deut. 32:6) or as the Father of the king of Israel (as promised to David and his son in 2 Sam. 7:14, which adds that when this son sins, the Father will punish him).
Besides Mk. 14:36, Abba is also used in Rom. 8:15 and Gal. 4:6; in all three the Aramaic Abba is followed by the Greek “pater.” Those addressing God as Abba-pater confirm they are children of God; and all who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God (Rom. 8:14-16). Unlike most of Israel, and unlike most of Israel’s kings, these children are obedient, as the Spirit leads them. Thus all true disciples of Jesus are Spirit-led obedient children of their heavenly Dad.
Whenever the Greek word pater is used in the New Testament for the heavenly Father of Jesus or his disciples, one should also think of Abba, Dad. Indeed, the New Testament overflows with passages that refer to God as the Dad of Jesus–and as the Dad of Jesus’ disciples. In Mt. 11:27, Jesus tells his disciples that “no one knows the Dad except the son and any one to whom the son chooses to reveal him.” Such language is most similar to Jesus’ teaching in the Gospel of John, which refers to Jesus’ Dad around 100 times. In Jn. 14, which uses “Dad” for God 23 times, Jesus tells his disciples “no one comes to the Dad except through me” (14:6). Jesus’ new revelation of Abba will lead to many other children coming to this same Dad.
While earlier faithful forefathers and pious prophets in Israel will be in the heavenly kingdom of Israel’s Father, only Jesus and his disciples now know this Father as Dad. Jesus’ disciples will be born from above, born of the Spirit, so that they become obedient children of their heavenly Dad. To all who received him (the “Word made flesh”), Jesus gave power/authority to become children of God (Jn. 1:12-14). Now the powerful Spirit not only comes and remains on Jesus, the Son of God (Jn. 1:32-34); the Spirit of truth will also be given to disciples, and remain with them and in them (Jn. 14:16-17). Through the Spirit, God’s beloved children all over the world will remain close to their Dad, and remain faithful children as they follow the “agape” (loving) way of their king, the Son of God.