When Jesus said (in Mt. 5:17) he came not to destroy the law and the prophets but to fulfill them, what did that mean? Before that, the early chapters of Matthew have emphasized that the coming of Jesus fulfills the words of the prophets. And the fulfillment even exceeds the expectations of the prophets.
Just before Mt. 5:17 Jesus tells his disciples they are the light of the world (5:14) and commands them to let their light shine before the “people” (of the world, Gentiles as well as Jews) (5:16)–just as Jesus himself is a light shining in “Galilee of the Gentiles,” fulfilling Isa. 9:1-2 (Mt. 4:15-16). While the disciples’ scriptures, the law and the prophets, focus on the kingdom of Israel, Jesus’ focus is on a new international kingdom of disciples. The crowd that now surrounds Jesus and his disciples–as he teaches them on the mountain–includes Gentiles from Syria, the Decapolis, and the other side of the Jordan (4:24-5:1). Is Jesus now doing away with the law and the prophets? Jesus clarifies that he is not destroying, but fulfilling, the law and the prophets. Yet his fulfillment is on a higher level than anyone expects.
In Mt. 1:18-23 Jesus is not only born of the virgin and called Emmanuel (fulfilling Isa. 7:14); he is conceived by the heavenly Spirit and called Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins. His people turn out to be “his disciples,” as in Mt. 5:1, in contrast to the majority of the Jews, in “their synagogues” (4:23). In Mt. 2:15 the prophecy of Hos. 11:1 (about Israel being God’s son called out of Egypt) is fulfilled by God’s son Jesus, who would come out of Egypt. In Mt. 3:2-3 the prophecy of Isa. 40:3 (about preparing the way of the Lord in the wilderness for the return of the kingdom of Israel from exile) is fulfilled by the kingdom of heaven that is at hand. When Jesus comes to the Jordan to be baptized by John (who wants to be baptized by the powerful Messiah), he tells John they will fulfill all righteousness (3:15). So Jesus and his new kingdom of heaven fulfill the prophets on a whole new level, beyond what the prophets expected or even wanted to happen. The fulfillment transforms, and replaces, what was expected.
Later, in Mt. 11:14, one of the final Old Testament prophecies (from Mal. 4:5), about the coming of Elijah before the great day of the Lord comes, is fulfilled by the coming of John, according to Jesus. All the prophets and the law prophesied until John, the final (great) prophet of the kingdom of Israel (11:13). Now that the kingdom of heaven and its new king have arrived, a greater era in history has begun; now even the least (disciple) in the kingdom of heaven is greater than John, who was the greatest in the kingdom of Israel (11:11). The time of the law and prophets and John in the kingdom of Israel is now fulfilled, and replaced, by the greater time of Jesus and his disciples in the kingdom of heaven.
(The next post will discuss Mt. 5:18, and the post after that Mt. 5:19.)
At the end of Revelation, Jesus emphasizes he is coming soon (Rev. 22:7,12,20). Most readers have interpreted this to mean his “second” coming, his final coming. But there are reasons to interpret this coming soon as a different kind of coming.
In his message to the seven churches, Jesus sometimes warns disobedient churches that he will come soon with stronger words of judgment against them (through prophets like John) (Rev. 2:5,16). And in the case of one church, one of the two obedient churches, he says he will come soon–and reminds them to remain obedient so they will not lose their crown; if they conquer (by being faithful), they will become part of the heavenly new Jerusalem (Rev. 3:11-12). In this case, Jesus comes as the one who has the key of David, who can open what no one can shut (3:7), and sets before them an open door (in the near future) (3:8). Because much of 3:8-12 is about their future reward in heaven, this open door is the door to heaven (like the open door in 4:1).
The key of David links with the “keys” of death and hades in 1:18. Jesus’ keys open the door out of death and hades for those who have been faithful, and his key of David opens the door into heaven for them. So Jesus is encouraging them to continue to keep his word and hold fast what they have, and he will come soon (when they die) to welcome them into heaven.
Likewise, in Rev. 22, similar words surround Jesus’ assurance that he is coming soon. In 22:7, right after saying he comes soon, he encourages readers with a blessing: “Blessed is the one keeping the words of the prophecy of this book.” Compare 3:9–”you have kept my word.” In 22:11, Jesus encourages the righteous to continue to do right. Compare 3:11–”hold fast what you have.” In 22:12, after again saying he is coming soon, he says he will give to each a reward (or recompense) for his work. Compare 3:8–”I know your works and I have given an open door before you.” In 22:14 part of the blessing Jesus gives is that they may enter the city (the heavenly new Jerusalem) by the gates (the doors). Compare 3:12–”The one who conquers . . . I will write on him . . . the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem.” And in 22:16 Jesus says he is the root and offspring of David. Compare 3:7–”The words of the holy one . . . who has the key of David.”
Thus the similar content that surrounds the context of Jesus saying he is coming soon in Rev. 3 and Rev. 22 could lead the reader to interpret this coming as his coming soon to welcome those who remain faithful unto death into the wide open door of heaven, entering the gates of the new Jerusalem. If readers remain faithful unto death, holding fast what they have, they will receive the heavenly crown of life (Rev. 2:10; 3:11).
Think of Stephen, in Acts 7:55-56, facing death from stoning and seeing the heavens opened, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God, standing to welcome him into his heavenly home. As they stone Stephen, he prays, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” In Rev. 22:20, because Jesus says “Surely I am coming soon,” the proper response of the faithful is “Amen. Come. Lord Jesus.” We are ready, and anticipate this coming–whenever our faithful witness on earth is finished.
Jesus warned his disciples that unless their righteousness was greater than that of the scribes and Pharisees, they would not enter his kingdom (Mt. 5:20). The Greek word for “greater” here (perisseuo) is found again in 5:47, where Jesus said “if you greet only your brothers and sisters, what more (perisson) are you doing? Don’t even Gentiles do the same?”
In the concluding section of Mt. 5 (5:43-48) Jesus told his disciples they had heard (in the synagogues, as taught by the scribes and Pharisees) that it was said “Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.” This refers back to the law of Moses, where in Lev. 19:18 it says to love your neighbor–and it defines the neighbor there as “the sons of your own people” (fellow Jews). In Lev. 19:17 it says not to hate your brother (fellow Jew). As for “hate your enemy,” passages like Lev. 26:7 say “you will chase your enemies, and they will fall before you by the sword” (the enemies being especially the Canaanites, the Gentiles, in their promised land). A similar passage is Deut. 20:1-20, a whole chapter about rules for waging “holy war” against (Gentile) enemies of Israel.
So Jesus’ greater righteousness includes a love for enemies, even Gentiles; and it replaces the righteousness of Moses and the scribes and Pharisees that included hatred for Gentiles. For Jesus’ new kingdom will be a worldwide kingdom of disciples, from every nation, including Jews and Gentiles. In Mt. 5:14 Jesus said his disciples would be the light of the world. So they should let that light shine before people, so they may see their good works and give glory to their heavenly Father (5:16). When people all over the world see these Jewish disciples greeting even Gentiles and doing acts of love toward even Gentiles, some will glorify the Father they serve.
It is the heavenly Father who shows the way by sending good things like rain and sunshine to evil people as well as good people (5:46). So children of this Father should do the same. It is Jesus’ disciples who are peacemakers–making peace where there was enmity and hate–who will be called children of God (5:9).
Jesus’ final words in this section are often translated “You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (5:48). I think the CEB translation gives the best contextual meaning: “Therefore, just as your heavenly Father is complete in showing love to everyone, so also you must be complete.”
When earthly ruling fathers call for hatred against national or local enemies–or for taking up arms against these enemies–disciples of Jesus should be focusing instead on their heavenly Father, on their Christ/king, and on their kingdom that acts differently from all the kingdoms of earth. True disciples should be reaching out in love to those outcasts of their society. In the U.S. this would include white middle-class disciples “breaking out” of their white churches and neighborhoods to “make peace” with certain poor black or brown people, like those in inner cities or on reservations–or increasingly in the suburbs.
Just before Jesus’ teachings in Mt. 5, he was showing mercy by healing even Syrian Gentiles who came to him, as well as Gentiles from the Decapolis (Mt. 4:24-25). He himself practiced the greater righteousness he demanded from his disciples. Practical acts of love, including gifts of money, to “outcasts” of mainstream society could lead them to thank the God who inspired such “perfect” love.
The Gospel of John is overflowing with the Spirit of truth. This Spirit is a river of living water that flows deep and wide–a veritable fountain of life (Jn. 7:37-39). This Spirit is poured out from above, first on Jesus at his baptism, and then on his disciples, after Jesus is glorified (after he returns to his Father).
While the Spirit was active in certain others at various times before Jesus, the new life Jesus brings is “eternal life” (literally, life of the age), the life of the coming age. It is a life of light and truth empowered by the Spirit. At Jesus’ baptism, the Spirit descends and remains on him (1:33). Thus Jesus always speaks the words of God, for it is not by measure that God gives the Spirit to him (3:34). Indeed, this one who continuously speaks the words of God is himself the Word (1:1); in this Word is life, and this life is the light of people (1:4). The Spirit is the life in Jesus, and enlightens people as the Word speaks the words of God.
Just before Jesus returns to the Father, he speaks many words to his disciples about the Spirit of truth: the Paraclete (the “Exhorter-Teacher”), the Spirit of truth, will come to dwell (remain) in them after he goes to the Father (14:12,16-17); this Paraclete will teach them, helping them remember all the words Jesus spoke (14:25-26); the Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, will bear witness to Jesus, and the disciples–who have been with Jesus from the beginning–will be witnesses (15:26-27); the Paraclete will convict the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment (through the disciples) (16:7-8); the Spirit of truth will guide them into all the truth, including things to come (16:13); and the Spirit will glorify Jesus by passing on to his disciples what Jesus said (16:14).
Anyone who is thirsty for this living water can come to Jesus and drink from this flowing fountain that is the Spirit (7:37-39). Even the Samaritan woman could receive this water that Jesus will give, a spring of water that gushes forth with eternal life (4:14). When the Spirit is poured out from above, true worshipers will worship the Father in (the) Spirit and in truth (4:23). Whenever disciples speak the words of God, the words of Jesus, it will be the Spirit of truth speaking through them; that is true worship, wherever it happens. The living Spirit is life-giving, enabling a life of worship that receives and passes on the words of God and Jesus.
The original Word became flesh, and was full of grace and truth; and the disciples came to perceive this glory (1:14). Even John the Baptist saw this glory when he saw the Spirit descend on Jesus at his baptism (1:33). And this grace and truth that is the Spirit of truth–that filled the Word made flesh–will also fill disciples, remaining in them as in Jesus, grace upon grace (1:16). For the law (the former words of God) was given through Moses; but grace and truth (the Spirit of truth) came through Jesus Christ (1:17). This grace truly saves: the Spirit focuses on the new words of Jesus; the Spirit enlightens disciples about what the words mean; and the Spirit empowers them to speak and live according to what Jesus said and did.
The Gospel of John has written all these words in order that readers (even us) might believe (or, continue to believe) that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing (continuing to believe) we might have life (the same living water that filled him) in his name (20:31). May we continue to read and believe and speak as the Spirit teaches us; and may that worship glorify the Father and the Son. The light still shines in the darkness of a world whose father is the father of deception and death (8:44); yet to those who receive Jesus, he gives power (the powerful Paraclete) to become children of God, to be born of God, to be born of the Spirit (1:4,10-13; 3:5-6).
When Jesus taught his disciples to pray to their heavenly Father “Your will be done” (Mt. 6:10), he was not talking about what “only God knows.” In contrast, many Christians now pray this phrase after they have asked God for healing or help in difficult situations; since they don’t know if God will do what they want or ask, they acknowledge that it’s up to God: Your will be done (whatever that might be).
As he faced suffering and death in Gethsemane, Jesus prayed to his Father, “If it is possible, let this cup be taken from me; yet not as I want but as you want” (Mt. 26:39). In this case, Jesus knew very well his Father wanted him to drink this cup of suffering and death. He understandably wished another way were possible. A little later, Jesus prayed again, “If it is not possible that this (cup) be taken away unless I drink it, let your will be done” (26:42). Jesus was not trying to persuade God to do what he wanted; he was persuading himself to do what he knew God wanted. His prayer expressed his submission to doing the difficult will of his Father.
The same should be true when we pray “Your will be done.” The context around Mt. 6:10 (the Lord’s prayer) is full of Jesus’ teaching about what his Father wants. All that Jesus teaches his disciples to do in Mt. 5-7 is part of what his–and their–Father wants. And just before 6:10 is teaching about how not to pray: don’t pray like the hypocrites in the synagogues, who make prayer a public spectacle for other people to admire; and don’t multiply words like the Gentiles, who try to flatter and persuade their many gods to do what they want (6:5-7). Instead of using prayer for their own purposes–like those religious “fathers” in the Jewish synagogues or Gentile temples–Jesus’ disciples should focus on the one true Father, the one in the heavens. Instead of praying in order to be revered by others, disciples should pray that only the Father is to be revered; instead of praying that they be blessed with a powerful and prospering nation, disciples should pray that the Father’s kingdom should come, a kingdom where the Father’s will is done–by obedient children of the Father (6:9-10).
Matthew’s emphasis on the kingdom of heaven means that this kingdom comes first of all from heaven. At Jesus’ baptism, the heavens open and the Spirit descends, anointing Jesus as the new king. And this new king will baptize his disciples with the Spirit in the future; this Spirit will come to enlighten and empower disciples all over the earth; they will then be part of the kingdom of (and from) heaven and please their Father, the one in the heavens. So praying for the Father’s kingdom to come–and will to be done–includes praying for the Spirit from heaven to come and enable them to be obedient children as part of the family/kingdom of their revered heavenly Father.
The prayer also looks forward to the final end of history, when the kingdom of heaven will become the only kingdom on (the new) earth, when the meek/gentle disciples will inherit the earth (5:5). But Jesus concludes all his teaching about the Father’s will (in Mt. 5-7) by warning disciples that only the one who does the will of his Father, the one in the heavens, will enter the (final) kingdom of heaven (7:21). Those who call Jesus Lord, and do impressive religious deeds, can still be “evildoers” who fail to obey many of his commands (7:23). It is not simply the one who knows Jesus’ teaching that is wise; it is the one who does what Jesus teaches who is wise (on solid rock) (7:24-27).
When we pray “Your will be done,” it should mean that we know what our Father wants us to do; and through the presence and power of the Father who has come to be with us–as well as the royal Son and empowering Spirit–we actually do the Father’s will on earth.
After Jesus was born, angels appeared to shepherds, praising God and adding “on earth peace” (Lk. 2:14). Thus popular Christmas cards and carols celebrate peace on earth, good will to men. The problem is that there has never been such peace over the whole earth, nor good will among all men.
The above phrasing of Lk. 2:14 is found in the King James Version. But over the centuries after that translation (in 1611), older Greek manuscripts have been discovered. The oldest we now have add one Greek letter (a sigma) to the end of the word for “good will” (eudokia), making it eudokias. This changes the phrase to “of good will.” That is why the New King James Version has a note for Lk. 2:14 that says: NU-Text reads “toward men of good will.” (The NU-Text here combines the two current scholarly Greek texts that incorporate the more recently discovered texts that are older; the N stands for the “Nestle” text and and the U for the “UBS” text.)
While “of good will” could mean here “toward men of good will,” most modern translations do not refer to simply “men of good will.” For the phrase can also mean “of (his) good will,” that is, of God’s good will. Often in the Greek translation of the (Hebrew) Old Testament, the Septuagint translates eudokias to refer to the persons on whom divine favor, or divine good pleasure, rests. And the few other uses in the Gospel of Luke also suggest this is the proper translation here in Lk. 2:14.
The result is the following translations: NIV-”on earth peace to those on whom his favor rests;” RSV-”on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased;” NRSV-”on earth peace among those whom he favors;” NASB-”on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased” with a note: Lit(erally) “of good pleasure;” or “of good will.”
The only other use of eudokia in Luke is in 10:21. There the seventy disciples have returned from their mission of casting out demons, healing, and announcing the new kingdom, and Jesus is praising God for revealing this divine power over the enemy (10:1-20). In 10:21 Jesus thanks his Father that these things (this divine power) were hidden from the wise and understanding (like the scribes and Pharisees) and revealed to “babes” (the disciples), for this was “your gracious will” (RSV, with a note: or “so it was well-pleasing before thee”). So eudokia here is clearly God’s eudokia, expressed in revealing the divine power of the new kingdom of God to and through these disciples. Lk. 10:22 adds that no one knows the Father except the Son and any one to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.
The verb form of eudokia is used two times in Luke. First, in Lk. 3:22, the voice from heaven at Jesus’ baptism announces, “You are my beloved Son; with thee I am well pleased.” Again, it is God who is well pleased with this Son. Second, in Lk. 12:32, Jesus tells his disciples, “Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom.” (NIV-”Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom.”)
The link between God’s eudokia in Lk. 2:14 and peace among certain people is thus pointing to the Son and the disciples whom the Son gives the kingdom and to whom he reveals divine power and revelation. The verse is not about a universal peace on earth, or good will among all men.
Certain later passages in Luke fill out this link with peace. In Lk. 10:5-6, when the seventy go to various houses as part of their mission, and a house invites them to enter, they are to say “Peace be to this house;” if “a son of peace” is there, this peace will rest on him; if not, it will not. Peace here is found among the disciples and those who welcome their mission and message. In Lk. 12:51, Jesus asks his disciples, “Do you think I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division.” Jesus goes on to describe division among members of the same family. Peace will not be found among families, when one or two of the family become disciples while the rest do not. In Lk. 19:41-42, Jesus weeps over Jerusalem: “Would that even today you knew the things that make for peace! But now they are hid from your eyes.”
Likewise, now that Christmas (and the Christmas “spirit”) has passed, the optimism of the cards and carols quickly passes away, and the earth that is full of division and strife rolls on like a torrent. Yet among true disciples of the Son, the Father’s favor is found among them, and there is peace, just like the angels sang. The Gospel of Luke ends with Jesus telling his disciples they will be witnesses of these things among all nations (24:47-48); this new kingdom (from heaven) will spread over all the earth, becoming small groups of disciples among all nations.